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Are you in some type of fiscal wreck? Do you really need just a couple of 100 money to help you get in your after that paycheck? Pay day loans are on the market to help you the money you require. Even so, you will find things you must understand before applying first. Here are some ideas that will help you make very good selections about these lending options.

Usually go with a payday loan business that digitally exchanges the money for you. When you need cash quickly, you do not want to have to wait patiently for the check out ahead throughout the snail mail. Moreover, you will discover a minor chance of the check receiving misplaced, so it is far better to achieve the money transmitted straight into your checking account.

When you are contemplating a brief term, payday advance, tend not to obtain any longer than you must. Pay day loans must only be utilized to allow you to get by inside a crunch and never be used for added funds through your budget. The rates are too great to obtain any further than you undoubtedly require.

If you are thinking of a payday loan, there are many things you have to have in order to be eligible. You have to have a checking account, and also be recognized within your task. Most pay day loans call for at the very least 90 days of steady career, just before financing can be done.

If you are taking out a payday advance, make certain you is able to afford to spend it rear inside of one to two several weeks. Online payday loans ought to be employed only in crisis situations, once you genuinely do not have other options. If you take out a payday loan, and are unable to pay it rear straight away, two things come about. Very first, you have to spend a cost to hold re-extending the loan till you can pay it back. Second, you keep obtaining charged a growing number of attention.

Plenty of pay day loan brands like to provide folks often over they may have wanted to acquire. Will not fall for this technique, because this is carried out to obtain to are obligated to pay the corporation more income at the end. Only obtain the total amount you will need and absolutely nothing additional.

If you find yourself tied to a cash advance that you just are unable to be worthwhile, get in touch with the loan organization, and lodge a problem. Most people legit grievances, in regards to the great fees incurred to improve online payday loans for one more pay period of time. Most loan companies will give you a price reduction on your personal loan charges or attention, however, you don’t get if you don’t ask — so be sure to question!

Before you sign around the dotted series to get a payday loan, check with your nearby Much better Business Bureau very first. Be sure the business you take care of is reliable and pleasures customers with admiration. Most companies available are offering cash advance organizations an incredibly poor status, and also you don’t want to become a statistic.

If you are planning to get a pay day loan, you have to be sure that there may be not another option. A payday advance comes with very high interest rates and may can even make your financial circumstances initial. Just use a cash advance once you have hardly any other selection, and will also support rather than damage you monetarily.

Should you be out of work or even in the armed forces, you will recognize that you will not be eligible for most online payday loans. Lenders which do offer you the support must be cautiously researched. You might find they are just angling trying to obtain your own personal details and use it to grab your personal identity.

Understand that you are currently offering the cash advance access to your personal financial information and facts. That is certainly wonderful once you see the loan put in! However, they can also be generating withdrawals out of your account. Make sure you feel safe by using a business getting that sort of usage of your banking account. Know to anticipate that they will use that entry.

Consider all of the payday loan options before you choose a payday loan. While most loan companies demand payment in 14 time, there are a few lenders who now give a 30 day word that may meet your needs better. Different cash advance loan providers can also offer different settlement possibilities, so find one that meets your requirements.

Much like other things like a customer, you must do your research and check around to find the best opportunities in payday loans. Be sure to know all the particulars all around the personal loan, and that you are obtaining the ideal rates, terminology along with other problems to your particular financial circumstances.

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A payday loan will not be a terrifying thing. Lots of people are instead cautious about taking out a payday advance since they don’t know ample about this. If you want speedy cash, a payday advance will help but you need to see if you can fulfill the phrases.
Payday loan organizations works across the regulations to charge the very best quantity. They tack on invisible charges which can be completely lawful. Which can cause interest rates to overall in excess of ten times a typical financial loan price.
When trying to obtain a pay day loan just like any buy, it is wise to take the time to shop around. Distinct places have plans that fluctuate on interest rates, and satisfactory sorts of collateral.Look for a loan that actually works beneficial for you.
Numerous pay day loan businesses will make the individual signal a binding agreement which will guard the lending company in every question. If your consumer is declaring bankruptcy they may be unable to discharge the lender’s personal debt. They can also demand a consumer to sign an understanding not to sue their lender when they have a challenge.
Your credit history report is very important when it comes to online payday loans. You may continue to be capable of getting a loan, but it probably will cost dearly by using a sky-higher monthly interest. In case you have great credit history, pay day lenders will reward you with better interest rates and specific payment plans.
Payday cash loans are merely short-run lending options and need to be repaid within a 30 days. Make certain that you’ll have adequate funds to pay back the cash advance about the because of particular date, which can be normally in a couple of weeks. The sole time which you may have got a small for a longer time is if you get the loan very close to your upcoming scheduled income. Normally, this goes your expected go as far back to the next payday.
Call the payday advance firm if, you will have a trouble with the repayment plan. Whatever you do, don’t go away. These organizations have reasonably aggressive collections divisions, and can be difficult to handle. Prior to they look at you delinquent in payment, just give them a call, and tell them what is going on.
When you are contemplating obtaining a payday loan, ensure that you possess a prepare to obtain it repaid without delay. The borrowed funds company will offer you to “assist you to” and expand your loan, if you can’t pay it back immediately. This extension expenses you a payment, as well as extra attention, so it does nothing good for you personally. Even so, it generates the loan business a great earnings.
Think about each of the pay day loan options before choosing a pay day loan. While many creditors demand settlement in 14 times, there are some creditors who now give a 30 day phrase which may meet your requirements greater. Various payday loan loan providers could also supply distinct settlement possibilities, so select one that suits you.
When you discover a great payday loan company, stick with them. Help it become your goal to develop a reputation of effective personal loans, and repayments. Using this method, you could possibly turn out to be eligible for even bigger personal loans in the foreseeable future with this company. They might be a lot more willing to use you, in times of genuine struggle.
Anytime trying to get a pay day loan, be sure that everything you give is precise. Often times, things like your work history, and residence might be verified. Make certain that your entire information and facts are proper. It is possible to prevent acquiring dropped for your cash advance, causing you to be helpless.
The most important suggestion when taking out a payday advance is to only acquire what you can pay back. Rates of interest with payday cash loans are insane higher, and if you are taking out greater than you may re-shell out with the due day, you will be spending a whole lot in interest costs.
You need to get payday cash loans from a actual area as an alternative, of relying on Web sites. This is a good idea, since you will understand specifically who it can be you are credit from. Examine the entries in your area to see if there are actually any loan providers in your area before you go, and check on the web.
Mentioned previously initially of this report, there is far more to getting a cash advance than just getting give funds in between paychecks. As you now have read the earlier mentioned report, you happen to be knowledgeable sufficient about payday loans. Now you may get the best selections feasible, to suit your needs particular circumstance.

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Have you been having difficulty spending a expenses at this time? Do you want some more money to help you with the 7 days? A pay day loan can be what exactly you need. When you don’t understand what that is, it really is a simple-word personal loan, which is effortless for many individuals to have. Nevertheless, the following tips notify you of a few things you must know initially.

One particular important idea for anybody searching to take out a pay day loan is not really to just accept the initial provide you get. Pay day loans will not be the same and even though they generally have terrible interest rates, there are several that can be better than others. See what forms of delivers you may get then select the best one particular.

If you realise yourself bound to a payday advance that you simply cannot be worthwhile, contact the financing business, and lodge a problem. Almost everyone has reputable issues, about the great costs charged to improve pay day loans for an additional shell out time. Most loan companies will provide you with a price reduction in your financial loan costs or fascination, but you don’t get if you don’t check with — so be sure you question!

Conduct some cost comparisons before you apply for any payday advance. Should you be facing a crisis, you might be pressed for time and cash. Check around and study each of the businesses and the advantages of every single. This guarantees you’ll be prepared for anything.

A growing number of organizations are sprouting up and supplying payday cash loans. A payday loan offers a small amount of dollars lent until finally the next salary. It is a quick-word bank loan. Because these loans are brief terms, the charges are great, nonetheless they come in convenient.

Look at just how much you truthfully want the money that you are currently contemplating borrowing. When it is something that could wait until you have the money to purchase, place it away. You will likely find that payday cash loans are not an inexpensive method to get a large Tv set to get a baseball video game. Limit your borrowing through these loan providers to unexpected emergency situations.

Read about the default repayment schedule for that loan provider you are considering. You will probably find on your own with no cash you have to pay back it when it is thanks. The financial institution could give you the possibility to pay for simply the fascination volume. This will roll around your loaned sum for the next fourteen days. You will end up sensible to cover yet another interest cost the subsequent salary and also the debt owed.

You can find not too several products which could not benefit from shopping around, and a cash advance is definitely not one. Not all the payday loan is identical, plus some organizations can provide much better phrases than the others. Examine the regards to different personal loans prior to selecting one particular.

It really is quite normal for payday loan organizations to demand information regarding your rear accounts. Lots of people wind up not getting this bank loan since they are unpleasant with disclosing this information. Nevertheless the company only desires this to ensure that they will receive their cash back.

If you are signing a payday advance, ensure you only borrow the amount you require and may very easily repay when it’s expected. More often than not, you’ll be offered that loan that is certainly greater than the sum you need and agreeing to it can only make it harder to repay down the line.

Study from your encounter about online payday loans. You will see that online payday loans are extremely infuriating. They often cost double the amount quantity that was loaned for you when you accomplish having to pay them back. You can use this rage to assist you better your money, significance you may not have to use a pay day loan any further.

If you discover your self within a situation with numerous pay day loans, will not try and combine them in a greater personal loan. If you are having difficulties to repay lending options which are small, they will have difficulties even tougher to make greater obligations. Try to reimburse the smaller financial loans as quickly as possible.

Beware of associates who earn money by hooking up you to definitely pay day loan organizations. The position of the loan company might be from the country, even if the hyperlink shows that they are within the us. You could find out you will be held in a legal contract in which you must pay back considerably more than you imagined you would have to pay back.

The very best idea accessible for using pay day loans is usually to never have to utilize them. In case you are being affected by your bills and cannot make comes to an end fulfill, payday cash loans usually are not how you can get back to normal. Consider creating a price range and protecting some cash so you can stay away from most of these lending options.

When you understand how payday loans work and typical pitfalls associated with this kind of financial loan, you may take a single out without the need of stressing oneself out as much. This ensures you’re never scammed.

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Online payday loans really should not be taken out casually. If you’re not knowledgeable about these sorts of personal loans, it might be a good idea to perform a little research. You need to understand what lays ahead. In this article you will discover much more about the alternatives available with payday loans.

Always understand that the funds that you use from the pay day loan is going to be repaid directly away from your salary. You need to policy for this. Unless you, as soon as the stop of the pay out time is available close to, you will see that you do not have sufficient cash to cover your other monthly bills.

Know very well what APR indicates prior to agreeing to a payday advance. APR, or once-a-year percent level, is the quantity of attention how the firm expenses on the loan while you are paying out it again. Even though pay day loans are quick and hassle-free, compare their APRs using the APR billed from a banking institution or maybe your credit card organization. Most likely, the pay day loan’s APR will probably be higher. Request exactly what the payday loan’s interest rate is initial, before making a determination to borrow anything.

When searching for a payday advance, do not select the 1st firm you discover. Instead, examine as numerous prices as you can. While some businesses is only going to charge about 10 or 15 percent, other people might charge a fee 20 or even 25 percent. Do your homework and look for the least expensive organization.

Execute as much research as possible. Picking the original loan company you discover will not be the very best concept. Assess charges to try to have a much better offer from another firm. Even though you may want to spend more time than you imagined, it is possible to recognize actual financial savings. The Internet is a good position to obtain the info you are searching.

While you need to indication kinds and also be qualified to be given a payday advance, you should not move forward throughout the procedure like yet another customer. Tend not to hesitate of asking to talk to the director or even a manager to negotiate decrease costs and rates of interest. Most businesses are pleased to quit some revenue margin if it implies acquiring more income.

Avoid pay day loans which can be way too high that you can pay back. Given that it’s hard to reimburse a payday loan from the beginning, some companies will provide more money than you originally wanted. This offers them more income later.

Search for distinct financial loan plans that might be more effective for your individual condition. Because payday cash loans are gaining popularity, financial institutions are stating to offer a bit more versatility within their loan plans. Some businesses offer 30-day time repayments rather than 1 to 2 several weeks, and you can be eligible for a staggered repayment plan that can create the financial loan less difficult to pay back.

Only borrow the amount of money that you just really need. For example, when you are having difficulties to pay off your bills, than the funds are clearly necessary. Nevertheless, you should in no way borrow funds for splurging reasons, such as eating at restaurants. The high rates of interest you will have to pay out in the foreseeable future, will never be worthy of possessing dollars now.

Call the pay day loan company if, you will have a issue with the repayment plan. Whatever you do, don’t vanish. These businesses have fairly hostile series departments, and can be hard to deal with. Well before they look at you delinquent in payment, just call them, and tell them what is happening.

Just how much will you are obligated to pay along with whatever you use? The APRs on pay day loans are excessive. In cases where there is no need the funds to pay back punctually, the financing will be higher if you do pay out it back.

For those who have analyzed their possibilities and also have made the decision that they have to work with an emergency pay day loan, become a wise buyer. Do some research and choose a pay day loan provider which provides the best interest levels and service fees. If at all possible, only obtain what you can pay for to pay back along with your after that paycheck.

Have a payday loan only if you want to protect a number of expenditures instantly this will generally involve expenses or medical costs. Tend not to end up in the habit of using payday loans. The high interest rates could actually cripple your money on the long-term, and you must learn to stick with an affordable budget as an alternative to borrowing cash.

If you are contemplating employing a cash advance service, be aware of the way the organization costs their costs. Often the loan cost is offered like a toned sum. However, should you estimate it as being a portion amount, it may exceed the percent amount that you are currently being charged on your credit cards. A smooth payment might sound reasonably priced, but will amount to up to 30Per cent from the unique bank loan in some instances.

Several cash advance deals will need that you just provide a verify that has been post-outdated to be able to promise payment. Ensure that the bank account connected on the check has got the essential amount of money after they money the check out. If the check out bounces, your bank could impose a fee and the organization who loaned your cash could achieve this as well.

You should now find out more about online payday loans. If you wish to get more information, tend not to think twice to perform additional investigation. Make sure you keep in mind info presented in the article over if you want to take out a pay day loan.

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There are a lot of things to consider when you are going to have a cash advance. Before deciding you wish to obtain a cash advance, ensure that you know a lot of the standard information and facts that is associated with them. So take a look at the following tips, to find out what you should look at when getting a payday advance.

If you must utilize a cash advance as a result of an emergency, or unpredicted celebration, understand that many people are invest an negative position as a result. Should you not use them responsibly, you could potentially end up inside a period that you simply cannot get rid of. You can be in debt for the payday loan firm for a very long time.

Pay day loans is one quickly way to entry income. Men and women simply need to know around they could with regards to their loan prior to they take the money and get the funds. Rates are huge along with the charges it can be hard to afford the repayments.

When you are within the military services, you may have some included protections not offered to normal individuals. Federal rules mandates that, the interest rate for pay day loans could not go over 36Percent each year. This really is nevertheless rather high, nevertheless it does limit the service fees. You can examine for other guidance initial, though, if you are within the army. There are numerous of armed forces assist societies ready to offer assistance to army employees.

Make sure you’ve fatigued other bank loan choices before you decide to safe a payday advance. Borrowing funds from the family member or friend surpasses by using a payday loan. Whatever you select, chances are the expense are under a swift financial loan.

Be skeptical of giving out your own personal economic information and facts when you are searching for online payday loans. It isn’t rare for apps to inquire about things like your deal with and interpersonal safety number, that make you prone to id theft. Always be sure how the organization you make use of is legitimate and well-known.

Browse the small print before getting any financial loans.

When confronted with a payday financial institution, keep in mind how tightly regulated they can be. Rates of interest are often lawfully capped at varying level’s condition by condition. Understand what commitments they may have and what person proper rights you have as being a consumer. Hold the contact details for regulating federal government office buildings handy.

If you are developing a hard time determining if you should utilize a payday advance, get in touch with a buyer credit score specialist. These pros generally work for non-earnings businesses which provide free credit rating and financial help to consumers. These folks will help you find the right paycheck loan company, or even even help you rework your financial situation so that you do not require the borrowed funds.

In case you are thinking of taking that loan supply, make sure it is possible to pay off the balance anytime soon. If your wanted amount borrowed is higher than what you are able reimburse in 3 weeks, you should think of other loan choices. You can definitely find other lenders that will provide you decrease interest rates and a for a longer time period of time to pay back the money.

Read through every one of the fine print on whatever you go through, indication, or may possibly sign at a pay day loan company. Seek advice about anything at all you do not fully grasp. Look at the assurance from the responses provided by the staff. Some simply check out the motions all day, and have been skilled by somebody doing the same. They might not understand all the small print on their own. Never hesitate to contact their cost-free customer care quantity, from inside the retail store to get in touch to a person with responses.

You need a concept of what you need to pay to get the borrowed funds. These personal loans are noted for charging very steep rates. If you have troubles discovering the cash punctually to repay the money when it is because of, you are going to end up receiving struck with greater interest rates and delayed costs.

Only turn to payday loans when they’re one and only thing kept. There are tons of charges and interest with these personal loans, that may result in monetary wreck. These lenders have quite prohibitive associates that debtors are required to signal. Think hard, and put together any alternative to getting by your economic crisis.

Making use of whatever you learned in this article should enable you to make decisions that are educated towards your finances. Implement the guidelines presented in this article to assist you control payday loans effortlessly. Usually do not give into the pressure of your cash advance selection. All the best getting away from your financial difficulties.

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Athens – What To See And How To See It


There are so many aspects of current civilization that were birthed in ancient Athens. Among these are theatre, philosophy, democracy, classical art and even the Olympic games. Athens is located on the southern coast of Greece and has existed for over 7,000 years providing a rich culture expressed in a diverse setting. The term diverse fits as you will find ancient relics and sites in some of the same areas where there are trendy boutiques and sidewalk cafes all mixed in together. This mixture of the very old and the new create a very unique experience provided nowhere in the world like it is provided in the ancient city of Athens. You will need to be sure your passport is up to day so if you need to add passport pages, be sure to go online and access a passport site to help you with this so you can be on you way.

World travel requires a passport but computers have simplified all passport needs. Even if you have to get an emergency passport, an online passport is available to help you. No one plans to have their travel documents lost or stolen but if this happens, help is as close as the nearest computer.

Athens is a city that contains many sites that make history come alive so this is certainly the ideal place for lovers of history to visit. High on top of the Acropolis you will find the Parthenon. This famous sight has earned the honor of being named as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Investigating these ruins takes you back to sights names in Greek Mythology related to gods and goddesses, the titans and many other mythological characters. Admission to this site also opens the Theatre of Dionysus, the Roman Agora and the Temple of Olympian Zeus to the traveler.

Being the birthplace of the performing arts, it is no wonder that the arts and culture are very important to the Athenians. While the National Gallery is certainly large and well known, many smaller art galleries populate the city. Athens is also host to approximately 148 theatres so if you are in the mood for a show, the difficult part will be which performance to see. Among the theatres is the famous Herodes Atticus Theatre.

Using a bike or even walking around this city is a wonderful way to see the sights. Green space is always welcome when you travel to big cities and the National Garden of Athens provides an exceptional treat. Within it can be found a small zoo, ponds with ducks, colorful flowers and beautiful landscape with no shortage of a shady tree to relax under and consider the sights of the day.

For those who would like to shop till your drop, your experience will be a little different in Athens. Rather than large malls and strip centers, you will find street vendors selling custom crafts rather than name brand items. Some of the most visited markets are found on Plaka, Kolonaki and Ermou Street. You will find endless selections of shoes, purses and jewelry if you visit here and the quality will certainly not disappoint you.

Authentic cuisine is always interesting in a foreign city and Athens is no exception to this rule. Known for their souvlaki, which is comprised of grilled meat, veggies and a special yogurt sauce, this Athenian staple is considered a treat by all who try it.


Athens – Church of Agioi Theodoroi


Crossing Odos Dragatsaniou, in the end stands the attractive medieval church of Agioi Theodoroi (St. Theodore), built on the site of a church founded in the ninth century, but in its present form dating from between 1050 and 1075. This small cruciform church with its high narrow dome, multiple roofs that lend it an air of rhythmic grace, narrow mullioned windows and decorated central door surmounted by arches, is a precious gem of eleventh century Byzantine architecture.

The earliest form of Byzantine churches was that of the basilica, a long rectangle divided by two or four ranges of columns into three or five naves. Later, during the 11th and 12th centuries, the plan changed to that of a Greek cross within a square, dominated by a dome constructed in brick and often combined with one or more subsidiary domes. The exterior walls consist of square-cut stone with thin brick surrounds and are enriched by bands of decoration, carving and the use of color. Few of these churches were large. Apart from St. Theodore, typical examples are the churches of Kapnikarea and St. Eleutherios.

The glory of the Byzantine church lies not so much in the architecture as to the ethereal beauty of its mosaics or frescoes. From the center of the principal dome Christ looks down upon the faithful and below Him are the Apostles. The Virgin appears in the half dome, while around the sanctuary are symbolic figures and emblems connected with the Eucharist. On the West wall opposite the chancel is the Last Judgement. Colored marble and similar material in the lower walls add to the resplendent beauty of the interior.

The liturgy of the Greek Orthodox Church requires separation of the altar from the laity. The altar is placed in a chancel screened from the congregation by the iconostasis, i.e. the screen dividing the sanctuary from the church proper. This is adorned with pictures of Christ, the Virgin, and Saints, and generally has three doors, the curtains of which are lowered while Mass is being celebrated. The chancel is flanked by the Prothesis, where the bread and wine for the Eucharist are prepared, and by the Diakonikon, or vestry.

In St. Theodore one can also notice the influence of the East on Byzantine art, which was prominent in the period from the mid-9th to mid-11th centuries, when Byzantine artists used a variety of Oriental motifs in their designs. It is probable that the design of pseudo-kufic characters (the script perfected during the 7th century by calligraphers in the city of Kafa, in present-day Iraq) that decorate the terracotta panel below the windows of the facade was inspired by the work of Arab craftsmen.


The Acropolis – Athens, Goddess Athena


Archaeologists tell us that the original city of Athens was situated on the Acropolis. Even in classical times, the Athenians still referred to this area as “the City.” The city of Athens and its patron goddess emerge into the light of history as inseparably coupled. In Mycenaean times each city was built around a central palace, and each palace was under the protection of its patron goddess. Athena was the goddess of the palace on the Acropolis. The names of the city and its goddess are essentially the same: Athena was Athens, and Athens was Athena. She was “The Athenian.” The ancient Athenians seem to have exhibited, during much of their history, precisely those virtues which they traditionally attributed to her. This may be because, when the Athenians imagined their goddess, they did so in their own image.

According to the myth, Zeus fell in love with a beautiful titaness, Metis (“Cunning Intelligence”). Although she repeatedly changed her shape to avoid his unwelcome attentions, as was his way, he persisted. In the end he caught up with her and raped her.

An oracle then announced that Metis would bear Zeus two children: first a daughter then, a son, and the son would be mightier than his father. Just as Zeus had once overthrown and dispossessed his own father, Chronos, so he was destined in his turn, to be overthrown by his own son. In a desperate attempt to avoid sharing his father’s fate, Zeus gave Metis a potion of drugged ambrosia, and then swallowed her whole.

Some time afterwards a terrible headache came upon him. In great pain, he sought the advice of Hermes, whose only suggestion was that Hephaestos, the smith of the gods, should open his head in order to allow the cause of his pain to escape. Zeus was so desperate that even this drastic remedy was preferable to doing nothing, and Hephaestos was duly summoned to cleave open Zeus’ head with his mighty axe. When he did so, to the astonishment of all the immortals, Athena sprang out with a great war-cry, fully-formed, wearing armour and bearing arms.

Zeus’ daughter not only became the patron of many arts at that time normally considered masculine preserves, such as ceramics, she was also credited with a distinctly unfeminine warlike nature. When the Olympian gods were faced with a titanic struggle against the giants, Athena played a major role in the war, defeating the giant Enkelados in single combat. She came to be depicted not merely as a virgin goddess, but, as an ancient Roman writer put it, as a virago: as a female capable of playing a leading role in a world dominated by men.

It came to be said that the reason for the birth of this goddess lay in a wager between Zeus and his consort, Hera, as to which of them could generate the better progeny entirely alone and unaided. By herself, Hera managed to produce only the crippled god, Hephaestos and a monster; while Zeus was able to bring forth, in Athena, one of the greatest of the Immortals.

This seems to have been a picturesque reference to a widespread belief, which was to appear later in the works of the philosopher Aristotle: that the father alone is responsible for generating his children, and for providing them with their inherited characteristics, and that their mother affords them nothing more than a temporary shelter and sustenance in her womb during her pregnancy.

This is a striking example of the strong climate of male chauvinism which dominated the early classical period in ancient Greece, which is very evident in myth and legend.


Ancient History – Athens


Archaeologists have found evidence that Athens has been inhabited from at least the fifth millennium BC. The site would have been attractive to early settlers for a number of reasons: its location in the midst of productive agricultural terrain; its closeness to the coast and the natural safe harbour of Piraeus; the existence of defensible high ground, the Acropolis (from akron and polis, or ‘city on the high ground’); and the proximity of a natural source of water on the north-west side of the Acropolis.

Traces of Mycenaean fortifications from the thirteenth century AC can still be seen on the Acropolis, including some foundations belonging to what must have been a palatial structure. The fortifications, known as the ‘Pelasgian’ walls (after the indigenous people believed to have built them before the arrival of the Greeks around 2000 BC), remained in use until the Persian Wars of 490-480 BC. One stretch behind the temple of Athena Nike appears to have been deliberately preserved in the Classical period.

There was a decline of Mycenaean society across the Greek world around the end of the twelfth century BC. Whether this was directly connected with the Trojan War (around 1184 BC), or the so-called Dorian Invasion thought to have taken place soon after this conflict, Athens does not appear to have succumbed to an attack. The Mycenaean royal family of Pylos is said to have taken refuge in Athens after their city’s fall to the Dorians. One of its members, Codros, became king of his adoptive city.

The collapse of Mycenaean civilization left Greece in political, economic and social decline, accompanied by loss of artistic skills, literacy and trade networks. The Mycenaean form of writing, known as Linear B, was completely forgotten, and the Greek alphabet did not emerge until the late eighth century BC as the new form of writing. At this time city states began to emerge throughout the Greek world, governed by oligarchies, or aristocratic councils. Thirteen kings ruled in Athens after Codros, until in 753 BC they were replaced by officials with a ten-year term, known as decennial archons, and in 683 BC by annually appointed eponymous archons.

Conflict between the oligarchs and the lower classes, many of whom had been reduced to slavery, led to a series of reforms that paved the way for the emergence of the world’s first true democracy. Around 620 BC the lawmaker Dracon set up wooden tablets on the Acropolis known as axones. These were inscribed with civil laws and punishments so harsh that the death penalty was prescribed even for minor crimes, giving rise to the term `draconian’ which is still used today. Dracon’s intervention did little to ensure order, prompting representatives of the nobles and lower classes in 594 BC to appoint the statesman and poet Solon as archon.

Solon terminated aristocratic rule, setting up a representational government where participation was determined not by lineage or bloodline, but wealth. He eliminated slavery based on debt, and restituted freedom and land to those who had been enslaved. Solon created a `Council of Four Hundred’ from equal numbers of representatives of the Ionian tribes to which the Athenians claimed to belong, and instituted four classes of citizenry.

Peisistratos, Solon’s younger cousin, became tyrant (tyrannos) of Athens in 545 BC. He ensured the Solonian constitution was respected and governed benevolently. After Peisistratos’ death, however, things took a negative turn and anti-Peisistratid sentiment grew. By 510 BC King Cleomenes of Sparta was asked to assist in deposing Peisistratos’ son Hippias. Hippias sought refuge in Persia at the court of King Darius.

Soon after, the aristocrat Cleisthenes promised to institute further reforms giving a more direct role to citizens in government. His reforms were passed in 508 BC, and democracy was established in Athens. A new `Council of Five Hundred’ (the Boule) replaced the ‘Council of Four Hundred’, with equal representation from the various tribes. Cleisthenes is also credited with instituting the system of ostracism, which ‘voted’ an individual considered dangerous to democracy into exile for ten years.

It is uncertain when the former Mycenaean citadel was transformed into a sacred precinct but by the late eighth century BC a modest temple (or perhaps more than one) stood on the plateau. The oldest and holiest cult image on the Acropolis was the statue of Athena Polias (Protectress of the City), a crude olive-wood figure, so old that Athenians of the Classical period believed it had either fallen from heaven or been made by Cecrops or Erichthonios. This sacred image of Athena was ritually ‘dressed’ every year in a peplos, a sacred robe, as part of the Panathenaic festival.

A temple is thought to have been built around 700 BC to the south of the later, Classical Erechtheion, to house the statue of Athena Polias. The first major building of which there are significant remains on the Acropolis was the so-called ‘Bluebeard Temple’, built in the Archaic period around 560 BC. The ‘Bluebeard Temple’ is thought by some to have stood to the south of the later Erechtheion. Ancient texts mention a mysterious building or precinct contemporary to the ‘Bluebeard Temple’, called the Hecatompedon, or ‘Hundred-footer’. Whatever this structure or place was, it gave its name to the principal room of the Classical Parthenon, perhaps because the later building occupies the same site.

With the expulsion of Hippias a new temple was built on the Acropolis, its foundations still visible to the south of the later Erechtheion. This building, the Archaios Naos, or ‘ancient temple’, is likely to have been deliberately commissioned around 506 BC as a replacement for the ‘Bluebeard Temple’.

The first Persian invasion of 490 BC saw the victory of the Athenians at the battle of Marathon against the forces of King Darius of Persia. The following year the elated Athenians leveled an area on the south side of the Acropolis and began construction of the Old Parthenon. A new gateway to the Acropolis was also commenced, known as the Old Propylaia.

This post-Marathonian building program on the Acropolis came to a violent end in 480 BC when Xerxes, son of King Darius, led a second Persian invasion of Greece. Athens had to be evacuated and Xerxes razed the city and buildings on the Acropolis. Under the command of Themistocles, the Athenians destroyed the Persian fleet in the battle of Salamis. Victory over the Persians was ensured after the battle of Plataea (479 BC), to the northwest of Athens, when a combined Greek army annihilated the Persians.

In the aftermath of the battle of Plataea, a vow was made by the victors never to rebuild the shrines that were destroyed in the war, preserving them instead as memorials for later generations.

Pericles, who was a general and statesman, came to power in Athens around 461 BC. He considered the oath of Plataea to have been fulfilled, as thirty years had elapsed from the Persian invasion, and proceeded to reconstruct the temples on the Acropolis. He gathered together the best architects and artists in the city and plans were drawn up to erect new buildings that would outshine those torn down by the Persians. The Periclean building programme enhanced the lower city with new monuments, such as the Temple of Hephaestus, also known as the Theseion, and the Painted Stoa or Poikile situated near the Agora (marketplace).